The question about what is the "best" file format for digital photography is probably one of – if not THE most debated topic on Internet forums, while the arguments pro and contra are mostly biased and - thus - not exactly helpful for starting digital photogs. Here are a couple of pointers aimed at helping you make the "right" choice.
Tag: "16 bits"
What means AF-S DX IF ED D G fEE SLR APO APS-C HSM CCD? Dictionary of (digital) photography terms and abbreviations.